- Y. Abe, T. Nakai, Y. Kuroki, S. Suzuki, Y. Koga, Y. Watanabe, M. Iwamoto, and K. Ohta
- New Generation Computing
Card-based cryptography is a variety of secure multiparty computation (MPC). Recently, a new technique called private operations was introduced because the protocol can be implemented with fewer cards than that by using the conventional technique called the shuffle. For example, Nakai et al. showed that if the private operations are available, secure computations of AND and OR operations for two inputs can be realized simultaneously by using four cards, and the protocol is applied to a four-card majority voting protocol with three inputs. This paper shows that only three cards are sufficient to construct a majority voting protocol with three inputs. Specifically, we propose two constructions of three-input majority voting protocols. One is a protocol assuming that players can announce their output, and the other is not allowed. Compared to Nakai et al.'s protocol, the protocol with the announcement is realized without any additional private operations and communications. On the other hand, the second construction requires two more private operations and communications because it removes the assumption on the announcement from the first construction. More importantly, the idea of the second protocol can be extended to an n-input majority voting protocol with n cards, which is the main result of this paper.